Grid Marking


  1. S. P. Keeler, "Determination of Forming Limits in Automotive Stampings." Presented at SAE Mid-Year Meeting, Chicago (May 1995), paper 650535.

  2. G. M. Goodwin, "Application of Strain Analysis to Sheet Metal Forming Problems in the Press Shop." Presented at SAE Automotive Engineering Congress, Detroit (January 1968), paper 680093.

  3. C. L. Altenburger, "Some Factors in Physical Properties That Influence Deep Drawing Behavior." Deep Drawing Steels, Proceedings of AIME Regional Meeting, Detroit (March 18, 1957), pp. 73-77.

  4. D. H. Lloyd, "Metallurgical Engineering in the Pressed Metal Industry." Sheet Metal Industries, Vol. 39 1962 (January), pp. 7-19; (February), pp. 82-91; (March), pp. 158-165; (April), pp. 236-245; (May), pp. 306-315.

  5. S. P. Keeler, "Understanding Sheet Metal Formability." Machinery, to be published.

  6. American Society for Metal Committee on Formability of Sheet Steel." The Selection of Low-Carbon Steel Sheet for Formability." Metals Handbook, 8th ed., Vol. 1, Metals Park, Ohio: ASM (1961), pp. 319-330.

  7. A. Sandin, "The Tensile Test  A Measure of Drawability." Jernkontorets Annaler, Vol. 148 (1964), pp. 259-275.

  8. R. D. Butler, "Relationship Between Sheet-Metal Formability and Certain Mechanical Properties." Sheet Metal Industries, Vol. 41 (September 1964), pp. 705-716.

  9. U. S. A. National Committee of the International Deep Drawing Research Group, "Correlation of Deep Drawing Press Performance with Tensile Properties." ASTM STP 390, 1965.

  10. R. L. Whitely, "The Importance of Directionality in Drawing Quality Sheet Steel." Trans, ASM, Vol. 52, (1960), pp. 154-163.

  11. S. P. Keeler and W. A. Backofen, "Plastic Instability and Fracture in Sheets Stretched over Rigid Punches." Trans. ASM, Vol. 56 (1963), pp. 25-98.

  12. S. P. Keeler, "Ductility of Anisotropic Sheet Metal." Presented at ASM Preweekend Seminar: Ductility  Limitations, Utilization, and Exploitation, ASM National Metals Congress, Cleveland, October 1967.

  13. International Deep Drawing Research Group, "Anisotropy and Tensile Test Properties and Their Relationship to Sheet Metal Forming." Inst. of Sheet Metal Engineering Colloquium, London, June 1964.

  14. P. G. Nelson, "Simplified Methods of Determining 'r' and 'n' Values in the Tension Test." The Budd Co., Product Lab., Auto Div., Philadelphia, February 1964.

  15. American Society for Testing Materials, "Standard Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Sheet Products  ASTM A370-65." ASTM Standards, Part 3 (February 1966), pp. 378-425.

  16. R. H. Heyer and J. R. Newby, "Effects of Mechanical Properties on Biaxial Stretchability of Low Carbon Steels." Presented at SAE Automotive Engineering Congress, Detroit (January 1968), paper 680094.

  17. G. S. A. Shawki, "Assessing Deep-Drawing Qualities of Sheet Metal." Sheet Metal Industries, Vol. 42, 1965, (May), pp. 363-368; (June), pp. 417-424; (July), pp. 524-532.

  18. Iron and Steel Technical Committee, "Method of Determining Plastic Deformation in Sheet Steel Stampings  SAE J863." SAE Handbook, New York: 1965, p. 116.

  19. S. P. Keeler, "Rating the Formability of Sheet Metal." Metal Progress, Vol. 90 (October 1966), pp. 148-153.

  20. S. P. Keeler, "Use of Grid Systems for Strain Determinations." Presented to International Deep Drawing Research Group  Working Group I  Processes, London, June 1964.

  21. J. A. Miller, "Improved Photogrid Techniques for Determination of Strain over Short Gage Lengths." Proc. Soc. Experimental Stress Analysis, Vol. 10 (1952), p. 29.

  22. B. Mayer, "Handbook of Electrochemical Marking." Willoughby, Ohio: The Electromark Corp., 1967.

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